Syphilis
Human Diseases

Syphilis

June 27, 2016

Signs and treatment of syphilis in the mouth

Syphilis in the mouth (Lues) – a chronic infection with a wavy course, is an STD – a sexually transmitted disease, its cause is the penetration into the body of the bacteria of pale treponema (T. Pallidum) from the spirochaetes kind. It has its own peculiarities: it develops only at a temperature of 37 ° C, it dies instantly in boiling water, reacts to antiseptics, soap and alcohol. There is no sex and age gradation for syphilis. Congenital syphilis can happen in case of a fetus infection.

General information

Syphilitic process has 3 stages. The cause of the disease is spirochete infection, but it occurs only with a sufficient number of pathogens and only if there is a broken skin: cracks, abrasions. Syphilis is considered as a systemic disease, because affects all systems and organs. The oral mucosa is always affected, so at any stage, there are all favorable conditions for the life of treponema.

Transmission of the infection is possible at the dentist for any manipulation in the oral cavity with insufficient sterilization of instruments, with kisses, oral sex, using other people’s hygiene and cosmetics – an infected toothbrush, lipstick, etc. During this period, the following signs of syphilis show up: approximately a month after infection and after the incubation period, a small hyperemic spot appears at the site of the introduction of the spirochete on the oral mucosa. Later it is transformed into a sore with a brilliant bright red or greyish-yellow base, smooth edges, which has dimensions about 0.5-1 cm, this element is called hard chancre, it is characteristic of the primary stage. On the lips it can be just one, so it looks like cracks, seizures, it does not heal, medicines do not work on it. When it is on the tongue- its inflamed sores resemble inverted saucers, on the gums the chancroid is formed less often, in the form of a bright red erosive crescent that grips several teeth.

On the amygdala it localized with asymmetry and with a bright red color, these tonsils increase, but do not hurt. The only complaint is the feeling of a foreign body in the mouth, because the chancroid is quite dense and cartilaginous. After 2 weeks, submandibular and cervical lymph nodes increase – regional lymphadenitis, and after 1 – 1.5 months the sore itself disappears completely. Many people think that it was a recovery and they don’t go to the doctor again. The first stage is the most contagious.

Blood test for syphilis

After 2-3 months of infection, this pathogen appears in the blood and it is the second stage of syphilis, which has very high level of infectiousness. The rash appears everywhere. And the second stage passes first without trace, but after the first wave it returns in the form of periodic relapses. The rash in the secondary stage more often looks like roseol (red spots), they merge to form erythematous stomatitis with a greyish-whitish bloom, they do not hurt, they are symmetrical, the amount of treponemes is just colossal. It keeps about a month, does not change outwardly.

Dangerous consequences

In addition to the described above, pustules can appear – so-called bubbles with purulent contents, lymphadenitis is also characteristic in this stage, there may be a small fever, malaise, weakness, headaches. All symptoms of the second stage in the oral cavity also disappear without a trace, and syphilis enters the latent period and human’s condition improves. With the defeat of the tonsils, syphilitic painless angina often occurs. In case of non-observance of hygiene, nodules can ulcerate, blood-purulent contents appear and fusospirochetoses are formed. If the corners of the mouth are involved in the inflammation, they are constantly injured when the mouth is opened, the cracks bleed, become covered with crusts and the bottom is dense.

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