Sinusitis is a term that defines a group of infectious-inflammatory diseases that have an acute or chronic form. The disease is caused by damage to the nasal accessory sinuses. In most cases, the inflammation of the mucosa has a viral, bacterial, or fungal origin. Sensitive and allergy-prone people can develop allergic sinusitis.
The reason of sinusitis can be various:
- Congenital abnormal development of nasal structures;
- Deformities of the nose acquired in the course of life (trauma or injury);
- Chronic inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract;
- Acute viral infections;
- Nasal polyposis;
- Mycosis, caused by a fungal infection;
- Allergies (hay fever, seasonal pollinosis, vasomotor rhinitis);
- Frequent hypothermia;
- Severe tooth decay.
Such a disease as sinusitis is most commonly seen in adults. When pathogenic microorganisms invade the paranasal cavity, an inflammation starts. One or multiple accessory sinuses can be affected. There are several types of sinusitis, that differ in the location of the inflammation. Some of the them are:
Sinusitis is an inflammation of one or both maxillary sinuses. It is accompanied by severe headaches and symptoms of general intoxication.
Etmoiditis is an infection in the mucous cells of the latticed bone. This type of sinusitis is characterized by sharp pain in the root of the nose, nose bridge, as well as in the eyes.
Frontite develops in the mucous membrane of the frontal sinus. This type is more serious than the cases of sinusitis stated above. The patient experiences strong, sometimes unbearable headaches and pain in the forehead. Sometimes the inflammation can lead to the swelling of brow ridges and upper eyelid. Other symptoms are difficulty breathing, inability to distinguish smells, photophobia, and high body temperature.
Sphenoiditis is an inflammation of the wedge-shaped sinus cells. Sphenoiditis is a relatively rare clinical case. Sometimes it develops simultaneously with ethmoidite. The disease causes strong headaches, pain in the eye pit and eventually can lead to a progressive loss of vision.
Pansinusitis is the most severe form of sinusitis. Beside the inflammation of the nasal sinuses, the disease strikes all paranasal cavities, which cause general intoxication, intense persistent pain in the inflamed sinuses, headaches. Inadequate treatment may lead to a chronic form of the disease.
Generally, the symptoms of sinusitis are divided into local and general.
- nasal congestion and running nose;
- partial or total loss of smell;
- difficulty breathing through the nose;
- dryness in the nasal passages and pharynx;
- redness and swelling of the eyelids.
- pain in the head and area of inflammation;
- loss of appetite;
- decreased attention and concentration;
- sleep disturbance.
Contact an otorhinolaryngologist if you experience any of these symptoms.