Gonorrhea is an infectious disease that is usually transmitted through sexual intercourse. This disease is mentioned in the cards of pregnant women more and more seldom, but unfortunately, this does not mean that gonorrhea is in the past. This relative rarity now is due to the fact that gonorrhea almost does not manifest itself, but about 2% of all women do not suspect that they are carriers of this disease.
A bit of history
Gonorrhea has been known since ancient times. It was even mentioned in Bible as “unclean efflux” from the urethra in men. Gippocrates also mentioned gonorrhea, and the author which name is the Greek doctor Galen, who lived in the 2nd century AD. Galen believed that the discharge from the men’s urethra with gonorrhea is a seminal fluid, so the name of the disease comes from the Greek words which are gone at the moment – the family and rhoia- the expiration. Despite the fact that it was later found that the secretions are not a seminal fluid, but have an inflammatory origin, the name has settled down and is still used almost everywhere. In addition, in Germany the name “gonorrhea” (from the German trophen – a drop), In France, gonorrhea is called “blennorei.” In our case, blennorei is the name for a specific lesion of the eyes.
Pathogenicity – Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is caused by a microorganism called “gonococcus,” or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, discovered by the German scientist A. Neyser in 1879. It is a paired bacterium, outwardly reminiscent of coffee beans, folded concave sides inward. The main way of infection is sexual act. The risk of contracting gonorrhea even after one sexual contact with an infected partner reaches 60-90%.
The infection probability is the same in normal sexual intercourse, as well as anal and oral sex. With anal contacts, rectal damage is observed, with oral symptoms of gonorrhea – angina is the most often one.
The non-sexual path of infection is possible in childbirth (when the child passes through the birth canal of the mother), very rarely – with close household contact of a small child with a sick mother (for girls – through a bed with the mother).
Symptoms of gonorrhea
The incubation period – from infection to the manifestation of symptoms – ranges from one day to several weeks. In modern conditions, gonorrhea can not manifest itself at all. In most women (50%), clinical symptoms may be absent, and woman feels herself almost healthy.
The first classic signs of this disease:
- a burning sensation and pain in the urethra at the beginning of urination,
- a slight thick discharge of a purulent nature.
- signs of lesions of genital organs join: vaginal discharge of purulent nature, itching, burning, discomfort in the external genital area, pain in the lower abdomen.
- fever, sore throat.
During examination, the gynecologist sees erosion of the cervix, redness around the external opening of the urethra and a wide purulent band flowing out of the cervical canal.
Gonorrhea can affect the large gland of the vestibule (there is bartholinitis – inflammation of this gland). In this case, from the side of the entrance to the vagina appears a morbid formation the size of a small plum, increase the body temperature, worsening its general standing of a woman. Bartholinitis requires surgical treatment.
With the penetration of gonococci into the uterus, pain in the lower abdomen increases, after that periods of menstruation are violated, mucopurulent or spotting from the cervical canal is observed. The uterus grows in its size, becomes soft, painful, which is revealed by gynecological examination.
The most severe form of gonorrhea is an acute gonorrhea of the uterine appendages. At the same time there is a sharp pain in the lower abdomen, the temperature rises to 38-40 ° C, the pulse rate increases, the indices in the blood tests change. With this form of disease, the uterine orifices of the fallopian tubes are glued together, the tube swells from the outflow of purulent outflow, surrounding tissues adhere to it, which is defined as a tumor-like formation. In this case, an operation is required to prevent the development of peritonitis. After a while, obstruction of the fallopian tubes may occur, leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
If gonorrhea is not treated, then development of gonococcal sepsis is possible. The causative agent spreads with a current of blood through the body, hitting the joints, heart, brain.
Gonorrhea during Pregnancy
The course of gonorrhea during pregnancy depends on when the infection occurred. If the infection has occurred before pregnancy, then the vast majority of patients disease is erased, therefore, a woman can not make a characteristic complaint. Only one third of sick pregnant women make any complaints. Chronic gonorrhea increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility.